Research Notes and References:
Jameson-Church-Duke-Bower Families





- A narrative of Engagements of the "Iron Guard" (Company A from Columbia County including Bejamin F. Jamison, Pvt and his brother Albion B. Jamison, Cpt.) during the Civil War from History of the Regiment .

(Note: Also see http://www.civilwarintheeast.com/USA/PA/PA035.php
and http://www.gettysburg.stonesentinels.com/PA/6PaRes.php )

On April 22, 1861, the company of Capt. W. H. H. Gore, known as the "Northern Invincibles," and the company of Capt. Bradbury, known as the "Towanda Rifles," left Towanda for Harrisburg, where they arrived on May 2, and formed the nucleus of the 6th Reserve Regiment. Upon their arrival at Camp Curtin, finding it impossible to be accepted for the three months’ service, the quota being already filled, they re-enlisted for the term of three years, and became Cos. F and I, of the 6th Reserve, or 35th Regt. of the line of Pennsylvania Volunteers.

Six of the ten companies of the regiment were organized on the same day, April 22, 1861, though recruited in different sections of the State, and without previous knowledge of each other’s movements. They were as follows: the "Iron Guard," Co. A, in Columbia county; the "Northern Invincibles," Co. F, in Bradford county; the "J. D. Cameron Infantry," Co. G, in Dauphin county; the "Tioga Invincibles," Co. H, in Tioga county; the "Towanda Rifles," Co. I, in Bradford County, and the "Susquehanna Volunteers," Co. K, in Susquehanna county. The remaining four companies were from Snyder, Wayne, Franklin, and Montour counties, respectively. With but few exceptions, the men had no previous military experience.

On June 22, the organization of the regiment was effected by the election of the following field-officers: W. Wallace Ricketts, of Co. A, colonel; William M. Penrose, lieutenant-colonel; Henry J. Madill, major. Lieut. Henry B. McKean, of Co. I, was appointed adjutant.

The regiment remained in Camp Curtin till July 12, when it was armed with the Harper’s Ferry musket,--except the two flanking companies, A and K, which were supplied with Springfield rifles,--and moved to Greencastle, and encamped in Camp Biddle, where it remained until the 22d, when it moved by rail, via Harrisburg and Baltimore, to Washington, which latter place it reached on the 24th. On the 27th it was mustered into the United States service. From thence it moved to Tenallytown, and was, with the other regiments of the Reserves, organized as the division of Gen. McCall, being brigaded, in the 3d Brigade, with the 9th (38th) Regt., Col. Conrad F. Jackson; 10th (39th) Regt., Col. John S. McCalmont; and 12th (41st) Regt., Col. John H. Taggart, Pa. Reserves,--Col. John S. McCalmont commanding the brigade.

The 6th became one of the most efficiently drilled regiments of the State.

The first meeting of the 6th with the foe was at Drainesville, Dec. 20, 1861. The 9th Reserve was posted on the right, the 6th in the centre, the Kane Rifles on the left, and the 10th and 12th in reserve. The 6th advanced into a wood a short distance, and met the 9th slowly retiring, being unable to determine whether the force in front was the enemy or the Kane Rifles. The true condition was soon developed, and volley followed volley in quick succession, and then the charge was ordered. The regiment cleared the fence in front with a bound, crossed the open field, and in a moment the enemy was flying in confusion, losing one caisson and some prisoners. The regiment lay in camp until March 10, and during that time Col. Ricketts was discharged, by reason of continued ill health, and Lieut.-Col. Penrose resigned, leaving Maj. Madill in command.

The 6th marched with the Army of the Potomac on the rebel fortifications at Centreville and Manassas, and back again, a few days later, to Alexandria, performing one of the most fatiguing marches—through rain and mud, shelterless and hungry—experienced during its whole service. On April 1, Lieut. William Sinclair, of the 3d U. S. Artillery, was elected colonel, and Adj. Henry B. McKean lieutenant-colonel, of the regiment, and Q-M.-Sergt. A. A. Scudder was commissioned quartermaster, vice R. H. McCoy resigned.

From this time to June 13 the history of the 6th is uneventful, camp-life being its portion, interspersed with marching between points. Its drill, however, was not neglected, and its efficiency thereby greatly enhanced.

On June 13, 1862, the regiment, with the Reserves, was embarked for the White House, to the support of Gen. McClellan in his Peninsular campaign. At the White House vast stores had been accumulated for McClellan’s supply. The 6th, with its brigade, arrived June 14, the 1st and 2d Brigades having preceded it, and moved forward. Upon the arrival of the 3d Brigade the post was alarmed by Stuart’s famous cavalry raid in McClellan’s rear, temporarily cutting his line of supply. The 6th was detailed to remain behind, when the brigade marched to join McClellan’s column, and was posted at Tunstall’s station, four miles from White House, on the Richmond and York River railroad. On the 19th five companies were ordered to fall back to White House, and the remaining companies at Tunstall’s to throw up earthworks for their protection. The rebels, however, flanked the Union army, and White House was evacuated, the stores that could not be removed being destroyed. The companies at Tunstall’s, under Col. Sinclair, by order of Gen. Stoneman, marched in hot haste to White House, and finally, so urgent did haste become, by the general’s order they threw away everything but arms and cartridge-boxes, and came to the landing on the double-quick, closely followed by the enemy. The regiment proceeded via Fortress Monroe and James river to Harrison’s Landing, arriving July 1. During that night the wagon-trains of McClellan’s discomfited army began to arrive, and by morning the brigades began pouring in, thinned and worn by the seven days’ battles,--some regiments scarcely larger than a full company, showing the severe and bloody struggles through which they had passed. The 6th here met its comrades of the division, greatly reduced by the fiery trial through which they had toiled and fought.

On the 4th, the 6th was transferred to the 1st Brigade, Col. William Sinclair commanding, Gen. Truman Seymour in command of the Reserve division, Fitz-John Porter, major-general, 5th Corps. The regiment at this time exchanged its arms for Springfield rifles, and performed skirmish duty alternately with the Kane Rifles.

A series of engagements extending over July 28, 29, and 30, 1862, were maintained by the Reserves near Groveton,--as the contending armies were concentrating and preparing for the desperate encounter of Bull Run (the second).

On the 28th the action of the 6th was unimportant. On the 29th it advanced up a ravine to the right flank of a rebel battery, but discovering it was supported by a heavy infantry force, withdrew.

On the 30th the fighting of the Reserves was splendid. The 6th was advanced to the left flank of the division, slightly in the rear of the advanced skirmish-line, which the regiment held until relieved by the advance of Porter’s Corps, when the division was marched to the rear and massed. Porter steadily drove the enemy, until heavily reinforced, when he in turn fell back. The Reserves were ordered to form across the line of Porter’s retreat, in order that he might rally and re-form his columns. The 1st and 2d Brigades had scarcely moved from their position when the enemy appeared on the immediate left, and the 3d Brigade, of which the 6th was a part, was compelled to resist the rebel advance. Most gallantly was it done, but superior numbers compelled a retreat. The artillery was formed on the brow of a hill south of the Warrenton road, and the division drawn up in column of brigade for its support. A brisk artillery duel lasted for some time, when the enemy in well-dressed lines were seen moving, evidently intent on securing a road which lay between the contending forces. "Immediately the word ‘forward’ was given, and the Reserves swept down the hill with headlong impetuosity, reaching the bank at the upper side of the road as the enemy was approaching the fence on the lower, and sprang down the bank into the road before them. The rebels, dismayed at the rapidity and success of the movement, turned and fled in confusion, under a terrific fire from the charging column." In this charge the flag of the 6th was shot from the staff, while in the hands of Maj. Madill. It was instantly taken by the gallant Reynolds, who, holding it aloft, dashed along the line, the wind catching it as he turned and wrapping it about his form. The sight was inspiring, and pausing for an instant, in the midst of the battle, the men gave a tremendous cheer for their commander.

The loss of the 6th in these sanguinary battles was 6 killed, 30 wounded, and 8 missing.

On August 30, Maj. Madill was elected colonel of the 141st Regt., and a few days after took leave of the 6th, regretted by his old command, for in the last battle at Bull Run he had displayed conspicuous daring and gallantry, and won the confidence of all. Five companies, A, B, C, D, and E, at South Mountain charged up the face of the acclivity and dislodged the 8th Alabama, and drove them in confusion down the opposite side of the mountain, and with the rest of the brigade held the mountain-top. The loss of the regiment in this bold dash was 12 men killed, and 2 officers and 39 men wounded.

At Antietam the 6th distinguished itself anew under the lead of its gallant commander, supporting the Bucktails, and sustained a loss of 132 killed, wounded, and missing; 8 enlisted men being the former, and Capts. Wright, Meeker, and Carle, and Adjt. Coleman were among the wounded.

On Nov. 6, the regiment went into camp on the same ground occupied by the Reserves a few days previous to the second battle of Bull Run, at Warrenton. Thence, on the 11th, it marched to Brook’s Station, on the Aquia Creek and Fredericksburg railroad, where a very comfortable camp was formed. Col. Sinclair was now in command of the brigade, Gen. Seymour having been relieved at his own request. Lieut.-Col. McKean having resigned, Maj. Ent was in command of the regiment, and Capt. Gore was detailed as field-officer.

At the battle of Fredericksburg the 6th was heavily engaged, crossing the Rappahannock on a pontoon bridge about three miles below the city on the morning of Dec. 12, and engaging the enemy on the 13th. It drove the rebels from their first and second lines, and, moving along up the hill, encountered the third line, and, after a most terrific fight, discomfited the rebels completely. "The regiment had now lost more than one-third of its entire number, the brigade had suffered terribly, and Col. Sinclair had been borne from the field wounded, when the enemy appeared moving through the woods to the right in large numbers. At the same time a terrific fire of musketry was opened on the left of the brigade. The line began to waver, and, no supporting troops being at hand, it finally yielded, and the regiment with the brigade fell back over the same ground on which it had advanced." Out of 300 men who went into this action, 10 were killed, 92 wounded, and 19 missing.

In the Gettysburg campaign the 6th won imperishable honor, the brigade being under command of Col. William McCandless, of the 2d Reserve, Col. Sinclair having resigned. The regiment reached Gettysburg at two o’clock P.M., July 2, and made a charge from Little Round Top with but small loss. It skirmished all day on the 3d, and towards night charged again, and captured a number of prisoners, and recaptured one gun and five caissons, and relieved a large number of Union prisoners, sustaining a loss of 2 men killed, and Lieut. Rockwell and 21 men wounded. It pursued the retreating columns of Lee to Falling Waters, where it was ascertained the rebel army had escaped across the river. The regiment marched and skirmished until Aug. 18, when it arrived at Rappahannock Station, and remained there until Sep. 15. In the mean time, Lieut.-Col. W. H. Ent had been promoted to colonel, Capt. W. D. Dixon, of Co. D, to lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. W. H. H. Gore, of Co. I, to major. It encountered the enemy again at Bristoe Station, Oct. 14, having 3 men wounded with shells. At New Hope Church, the left wing of the 6th, deployed as skirmishers, under command of Maj. Gore, repulsed two charges of the rebels, with a loss of 2 killed and 4 wounded.

In the Wilderness campaign of Gen. Grant, the 6th was engaged every day from the opening battle of the campaign, May 5, 1864, to May 21, the date of the expiration of its term of service. On the 5th and 6th it was actively engaged, contesting gallantly every inch of ground. On the 7th a slight skirmish only occupied it, in which Capt. Allen, of Co. G, was wounded. At Spottsylvania, on the 8th, it was engaged heavily all day, and on the 9th moved to the right of the line, and constructed rifle-pits. On the 10th two unsuccessful charges, and again on the 12th, were made on the enemy’s works, led by Maj. Gore, Col. Ent having command of the 3d Brigade. In this last engagement Capt. John M. Snyder, of Co. I, was killed. The loss during these engagements was 13 killed, 64 wounded, and 9 missing. "Constantly, on the skirmish- and picket-line, the 6th met the enemy on every field with unflinching courage." On the 22d it captured 90 men of Hill’s Corps.

"At length the final day of its service arrived, and with it the crowning success of the Reserves at Bethesda Church. The regiment was deployed as skirmishers, and had gained the Mechanicsville road, near the church, when it was attacked by an overwhelming force, and compelled to retire with considerable loss. It then threw up a rifle-pit, upon which the enemy impetuously charged. Retaining its fire until the foe was sufficiently near, it poured forth a volley that inflicted most terrible slaughter. Although but about 150 strong, the 6th captured 102 prisoners, and buried 72 dead rebels in its immediate front." Col. Ent and Capt. Waters were wounded, and 19 men captured.

After three years’ service in camp and on the march, from Drainesville to its final brilliant success at Bethesda Church, sharing in the privations and hardships of the Army of the Potomac, as well as in its glory, the regiment left the field, June 1, for Harrisburg, where it was, with the Reserves, received enthusiastically on the 6th, and mustered out of service on the 14th.


From the History of Bradford County



Note: The 6th Pennsylvania Reserves was also known as 35th Infantry. During the battle of Gettysburg, it served as a member of McCandless’ Brigade in Crawford’s Division of the Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac. The unit fought on Little Round Top during the battle and their engagement is described as follows: (from http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Little_Round_Top)

In the meantime, Little Round Top was undefended by Union troops. Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, commander of the Army of the Potomac, had ordered Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles's III Corps to defend the southern end of Cemetery Ridge, which would have just included Little Round Top. But Sickles, defying Meade's orders, moved his corps a few hundred yards west to the Emmitsburg Road and the Peach Orchard, causing a large salient in the line, which was also too long to defend properly. His left flank was anchored in Devil's Den. When Meade discovered this situation, he dispatched his chief engineer, Brig. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, to attempt to deal with the situation south of Sickles's position. Climbing Little Round Top, Warren found only a small Signal Corps station there. He saw the glint of bayonets in the sun to the southwest and realized that a Confederate assault into the Union flank was imminent. He hurriedly sent staff officers, including Washington Roebling, to find help from any available units in the vicinity.[6]

The response to this request for help came from Maj. Gen. George Sykes, commander of the Union V Corps. Sykes quickly dispatched a messenger to order his 1st Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. James Barnes, to Little Round Top. Before the messenger could reach Barnes, he encountered Col. Strong Vincent, commander of the lead brigade, who seized the initiative and directed his four regiments to Little Round Top without waiting for permission from Barnes. He and a staff officer galloped ahead to reconnoiter and guided his four regiments into position. On the western slope he placed the 16th Michigan, and then proceeding counterclockwise were the 44th New York, the 83rd Pennsylvania, and finally, at the end of the line on the southern slope, the 20th Maine. Arriving only ten minutes before the Confederates, Vincent ordered his brigade to take cover and wait, and he ordered Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, commander of the 20th Maine, to hold his position, the extreme left of the Army of the Potomac, at all costs. Chamberlain and his 385 men[7] waited for what was to come.[8]

July 2, 1863

The approaching Confederates were the Alabama Brigade of Hood's Division, commanded by Brig. Gen. Evander Law. (As the battle progressed and Law realized he was in command of the division, Col. James L. Sheffield was eventually notified to assume brigade command.) Dispatching the 4th, 15th, and 47th Alabama, and the 4th and 5th Texas to Little Round Top, Law ordered his men to take the hill. The men were exhausted, having marched more than 20 miles (32 km) that day to reach this point. The day was hot and their canteens were empty; Law's order to move out reached them before they could refill their water.[9] Approaching the Union line on the crest of the hill, Law's men were thrown back by the first Union volley and withdrew briefly to regroup. The 15th Alabama, commanded by Col. William C. Oates, repositioned further right and attempted to find the Union left flank.[10]

The left flank consisted of the 20th Maine regiment and the 83rd Pennsylvania. Seeing the Confederates shifting around his flank, Chamberlain first stretched his line to the point where his men were in a single-file line, then ordered the southernmost half of his line to swing back during a lull following another Confederate charge. It was there that they "refused the line"—formed an angle to the main line in an attempt to prevent the Confederate flanking maneuver. Despite heavy losses, the 20th Maine held through two subsequent charges by the 15th Alabama and other Confederate regiments for a total of ninety minutes.[11]

On the final charge, knowing that his men were out of ammunition, that his numbers were being depleted, and further knowing that another charge could not be repulsed, Chamberlain ordered a maneuver that was considered unusual for the day: He ordered his left flank, which had been pulled back, to advance with bayonets. As soon as they were in line with the rest of the regiment, the remainder of the regiment charged, akin to a door swinging shut. This simultaneous frontal assault and flanking maneuver halted and captured a good portion of the 15th Alabama.[12]

Recently published research[13] has presented claims by Lieutenant Holman S. Melcher that he initiated the charge, although Chamberlain has been credited by most historians for ordering the advance. Chamberlain's version of the story is that he decided to order the charge before Lt. Melcher requested permission to advance the center of the line toward a boulder ledge where some of the men were wounded and unable to move. Admiring the lieutenant's bravery and compassion, Chamberlain agreed and sent him back to his company, telling him that he was about to order the entire regiment forward. As Melcher returned to his men, the shouts of "Bayonet!" were already working their way down the line.[14]

During their retreat, the Confederates were subjected to a volley of rifle fire from Company B of the 20th Maine, commanded by Captain Walter Morrill, and a few of the 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters, who had been placed by Chamberlain behind a stone wall 150 yards to the east, hoping to guard against an envelopment. This group, who had been hidden from sight, caused considerable confusion in the Confederate ranks.[12]

Thirty years later, Chamberlain received a Medal of Honor for his conduct in the defense of Little Round Top. The citation read that it was awarded for "daring heroism and great tenacity in holding his position on the Little Round Top against repeated assaults, and carrying the advance position on the Great Round Top."[15]

Despite this victory, the rest of the Union regiments on the hill were in dire straits. While the Alabamans had pressed their attacks on the Union left, the 4th and 5th Texas were attacking Vincent's 16th Michigan, on the Union right. Rallying the crumbling regiment (the smallest in his brigade, with only 263 men) several times, Vincent was mortally wounded during one Texas charge. He died on July 7, but not before receiving a deathbed promotion to brigadier general.[16]

Before the Michiganders could be demoralized, reinforcements summoned by Warren—who had continued on to find more troops to defend the hill—had arrived in the form of the 140th New York and a battery of four guns—Battery D, 5th U.S. Artillery, commanded by Lt. Charles E. Hazlett. (Simply maneuvering these guns by hand up the steep and rocky slope of the hill was an amazing achievement. However, this effort had little effect on the action of July 2. The artillerymen were exposed to constant sniper fire and could not work effectively. More significantly, however, they could not depress their barrels sufficiently to defend against incoming infantry attacks.)[17]

The 140th charged into the fray of the battle, driving the Texans back and securing victory for the Union forces on the hill. Col. Patrick "Paddy" O'Rorke, who personally led his regiment in the charge, was killed. Reinforced further by Stephen Weed's brigade of the V Corps, Union forces held the hill throughout the rest of the battle, enduring persistent fire from Confederate sharpshooters stationed around Devil's Den. General Weed was among the victims, and as his old friend Charles Hazlett leaned over to comfort Weed, the artilleryman was also shot dead.[18]

Evening and July 3

Later that day, Little Round Top was the site of constant skirmishing. It was fortified by Weed's brigade, five regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserves, and an Ohio battery of six guns. Most of the stone breastworks that are currently visible on the hill were constructed by these troops after the fighting stopped. Troops of the II, V, VI, and XII Corps passed through the area and also occupied Round Top.[19]

Little Round Top was the starting point for a Union counterattack at dusk on July 2, conducted by the 3rd Division of the V Corps (the Pennsylvania Reserves including Company A of the 6th PA Reserves) under Brig. Gen. Samuel W. Crawford, launched to the west in the direction of the Wheatfield.[20]

Fortunately, General Meade was present, and promptly ordered his old command, the Pennsylvania Reserves, to charge upon the enemy, and retrieve the day, by turning defeat into victory. The Third brigade of the division had previously been detailed to watch the movements of the enemy towards Roundtop. General Crawford immediately directed Colonel M'Candless, commanding the first brigade (including the 6th PA Reserves), to form his command and charge down the slope. The enemy's advance had already reached the foot of the ridge, and his heavy columns were rapidly pushing forward. M'Candless formed his brigade in two lines; the second massed on the first. The Sixth regiment, commanded by Colonel Ent, was placed on the right; the First, Colonel Tally, on the left; and the Eleventh, Colonel Jackson, in the centre; the Second regiment, Lieutenant-colonel Woodward, and the Bucktails, commanded by Colonel Taylor, formed the second line.
The line first delivered two well-directed volleys upon the advancing masses of the enemy, then rang out, loud and strong, the battle shout peculiar to the Reserves, and the whole column running swiftly down the slope, the men bringing their pieces to a charge as they ran, fell upon the enemy, swept him from the hill-side, and in a short, but determined struggle, routed him from the shelter of a stone wall on the plain. The rebels retired to a wheat field and the woods beyond it. Colonel M'Candless immediately deployed the second line to the left, the Bucktails gained the flank, and dashed upon the enemy, who endeavored, for a moment, to make a stand, but soon broke beneath the impetuous charge, and fled in disorder across the field, leaving his dead and wounded in the hands of the Reserves. Having once seized the position, Colonel M'Candless firmly held the line of the stone wall, and the woods on the right. The enemy had been repulsed only by the most desperate fighting, and the victory had been purchased at the price of the lives of many gallant heroes. Emboldened by their successful assault upon Sickles' corps, the rebels were advancing to seize the ridge on the left of the line. To repel this victorious column the Reserves bad been led to the charge. The onset was terrible. The rebel generals threw themselves at the head of their troops, and, with sword in hand, urged them to the conflict. They well knew the ground must be held, or the advantages gained must be lost. The Reserves, however, were fighting on their own soil, with their backs to their hones; it was a battle for the safety of their families, the defence of their State, the honor of their country, the glory of their unsullied banner, and the reputation of their most beloved commander. What motives these, for men to die bravely, or to survive an honorable death with an untarnished fame! No foe could withstand a charge impelled by hearts thus nerved to the combat. First, the officers cheering on their rebel hosts, fell beneath the unerring fire of the Bucktails, and the hostile column was speedily broken and hurled back by the bayonets of the First brigade.

It was now past six o'clock in the evening, and the enemy did not again renew the conflict on that part of the field; but at the same time that these heavy masses had been thrown upon the Third corps, a rebel brigade had been sent to occupy Roundtop, which was the key-point to the position of the left wing, and if seized and held by the enemy, Meade's line would become untenable. In the meantime, Colonel Fisher, commanding the Third brigade of the Reserves, had gained his position in support of Colonel Rice's brigade of the Fifth corps. The enemy had ceased firing, and retired before Colonel Fisher's regiments had time to become engaged. As it was growing dark, the colonel rode to Colonel Rice's headquarters, and asked him whether the fire of the enemy on Roundtop had not annoyed his command during the afternoon, and upon receiving an affirmative answer, he said, " I will take that hill to-night." Colonel Rice thought it might prove a hazardous enterprise; but, his ardor not in the least checked by the prospect of a fierce conflict with the enemy, Colonel Fisher replied, that " all active operations in warfare were more or less hazardous." Colonel Rice then proposed to aid him, and detached the Twentieth Maine regiment to join the Reserves in an effort to drive the rebels from the hill. Colonel Fisher immediately formed his line of the Fifth regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Dare, and the Twelfth, Colonel Hardin; the Twentieth Maine was thrown forward as skirmishers. At the moment before advancing, Colonel Fisher saw General Crawford riding towards him; he waited his arrival, and explained to him the movement he was about to make against the mountain. The general approved of the project, and the dispositions for the attack, and directed Colonel Fisher to "go ahead and take it." The three regiments advanced rapidly and quietly up the hill, and suddenly fell upon the astonished rebels on its summit, and drove them in confusion down its south-eastern slope. From some of the prisoners taken, Colonel Fisher learned that a detachment of the enemy was moving round the base of the mountain for the purpose of cutting off his brigade from its supports; lie, therefore, hurried down the slope, and ordered the Ninth regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Snodgrass, and the Tenth, Colonel Warner, to move forward and take a position to command the valley, and prevent a flank movement, if it should be attempted by the enemy. The Sixth corps, meanwhile, had come up, and had taken position behind the Fifth, and thus formed a line that was entirely secure. The Reserves -were not called into action again until three o'clock on the afternoon of the following day.

In this brief struggle General Sickles was wounded so severely in the leg, that it was afterwards amputated above the knee; Hancock and Gibbon, of the Second corps, were wounded, and Zook. commanding a brigade, and Colonel Taylor, of the Bucktails, were killed. On the side of the rebels, General Barksdale, of Mississippi, was killed; Hood, Semmes and Heth were wounded.
Just at dark Ewell, on the left, advanced Johnson's division to attack Slocum's line, which had been stripped of troops to reinforce the left, and the same time Rhodes and Early advanced their divisions against Cemetery hill, held by Howard's corps. The troops received the attack with great coolness, and from their secure position behind intrenchments and a stone wall, easily repelled the enemy, but suddenly the brigade of "Louisiana Tigers" (Ed. note: including Victor Braud, Pvt. later a/k/a George C. Duke) sprung from its concealment in a deep ravine where it had lain protected from the artillery fire, waiting for an opportunity to charge upon Howard's right and sieze the batteries that were sweeping the slopes; these desperate fighters rushed forward, drove the artillerymen from their guns, and the infantry from their rifle pits, and were in the act of turning the batteries to enfilade the line of the right wing, when a brigade of Schurz's German troops fell upon the victorious Tigers with such impulsive fury, that, after a hand to hand encounter, in which the bayonet was freely used on both sides, and crashing blows from the clubbed muskets were given and taken, the enemy was driven from the crest, and the batteries, with murderous rounds of grape and canister, swept the broken columns from the hillside.

(Third Day – Picketts Charge – during which)

General Meade, with his soul intent on the desperate work in his front, with the genius of a great soldier, had not neglected to feel, with the most delicate touch, the faintest pulsations of battle along his entire line. He quickly saw the movement developing against his left, and promptly directed Sykes to make the necessary dispositions to meet the enemy in that direction. General Crawford was ordered to move forward a brigade to check the advance of the enemy towards Little Roundtop. Colonel M'Candless immediately abandoned the position he had seized and fortified on the previous day, and pushed forward a line of skirmishers toward the right, in front of a battery the enemy had posted in the border of a wooded ridge ; Bartlett's brigade of the Sixth corps supported the Reserves by moving into the position they had just vacated, and other troops were moved up on the right. The movement had hardly begun, before the enemy opened his battery on the Reserves with grape and canister; but the troops advanced rapidly, and soon gained the woods on the right, when the battery ceased firing and fled. The line was they formed, and, under the immediate direction of Colonel M'Candless, dashed across the wheat field, and into the upper end of the woods; the enemy's skirmishers were driven back, and the upper end of the woods was cleared. The command then changed front, faced towards Gettysburg, and charged through the lower end of the woods. It encountered General Anderson's brigade of Georgian, which had taken position behind a stone wall, extending through the woods north and south, and which the rebel; had made stronger by rails and logs. The Reserves, moving in a direction parallel to the wall, fell upon the flank of Anderson's troops, completely routing them, taking three hundred prisoners, one stand of colors, belonging to the Fifteenth Georgia regiment, and five thousand stand of arms. Another Rebel brigade, under General Benning, which lay concealed beyond the woods, and near the foot of the ridge, took the alarm and ran without firing a shot.
The three brigades of M'Law's division greatly outnumbered the Reserves; but the rapidity of the movement, and the gallant dash of the regiments, successfully surprised and routed them. They fell back nearly a mile, to a second  ridge; where, during the night, they intrenched themselves. By this charge of M'Candless' brigade, and the Eleventh regiment of Fisher's brigade, the whole of the ground lost the previous day was retaken, together with all of the wounded, who, mingled with those of the rebels, were lying uncared for, on the field.

The dead of both sides lay in lines in every direction, and the large number of Union  men showed how fierce  had been the struggle, and how faithfully and persistently the Third corps lead battled for the field against the superior masses of the enemy
General Lee hastily threw forward a division of Georgia troops, and opened fire with his artillery, to cover the retreat of his broken columns, hurled back from Hancock's  lines, and made hurried dispositions to repel an attack. As soon as General Meade saw that success had attended his  troops in the centre, he rode to the left to order an advance in support of the Reserves, who had moved so promptly in obedience to his instructions. It, was already near sunset  and before the forces could be sufficiently concentrated to make a charge on the right flank of the enemy, darkness ensued, and it was too late to follow up the victory.  M'Candless was therefore ordered to halt and hold his position. The battle ended with the day, resulting in a complete victory to the National army.


- Philadelphia Times interview of James B. Jamison (Jameson), Commander of the Union Light Guard
August 29, 1893



Lieut Jamison’s Reminiscences of the

A Florida Man Who Commanded the
Picked Company of Men Selected to
Guard the President

Secretary Stanton Overruled
the Order of
HIs Chief.

[From the Philadelphia Times. August 29, 1893)

Lieut. James B. Jamison, of Lake Coma,
Putnam County, Fla. , la in the city as the
guest of City Treasurer George D. McCreary.
Mr. Jamison was lieutenant and really sole
commander and Captain of the Union Light
Guard which acted toward the close of the
civil war as body-guard to Abraham Lincoln.
He was seen yesterday at Mr. Mccrearys
office in the City Hall, and told an Interesting
story of the origin of bis command and the
duties performed by it. He also related a
number of hitherto unpublished facts In regard
to President Lincolns assassination.
The Union Light Guard, he said, was
composed of men selected by Gov. Tod,
of Ohio, to act as body-guard to President
Lincoln after the Confederate cause was considered
hopeless, and there were rumors afloat
that there would be an attempt upon the
Presidents life, it was composed of picked
men, one from each county of the State of
Ohio. At the time of Its organization I was
aid to the Governor of Ohio, to which post I
had been appointed in recognition of my
services at Shlloh. The body was a mounted
one. We had hardly reached Washington
when the Captain and First Lieutenant were
court-martialed and dismissed from the service,
and I succeeded to the command and continued
there until the body was disbanded,
but never received my proper rank.

My first orders upon reaching Washington
came from Secretary of war Stanton
and were to escort President Lincoln from
the White House to the Presidents country
home on the Potomac. With my command I
proceeded to the White House and announced
my errand to the President. He objected
j moat emphatically to having an armed escort,
1 asserting that there was no danger; that he
| didnt need or want a body-guard. In fact he
I positively declined to leave the White House
under escort. As he was the President and I
but a Lieutenant I did not feel justified In
1 carrying him off bodily, so I said to him that
to neglect to carry out orders was a serious
matter to an army officer, and asked him for
some piece of writing to show that my orders
had been countermanded by the President
himself. The President picked up a slip of
paper not over 2 inches square and wrote
upon It:
• I decline to accept the escort of a bodyguard.
Abraham Lincoln.

I then ordered my command back to barracks
and awaited developments. They were
not long In coming. Inside of an hour a messenger
came post haste with orders that I appear
before the Secretary of War. When I
reached his office Stanton swung around in
his chair and demanded, in his fiercest manner,
why I had failed to obey orders by not
escorting the President to his home on the
Potomac. I responded that the President htm-
seit had countermanded the order, at the
same time presenting the slip of paper. Stanton
glanced at it. tore it Into bits, wadded
them up and threw them in my face. Then
he exclaimed:
Sir, take your command and do as you
were ordered. Escort the President whether
he likes it or not, and neglect to do so at your
Again I took my command to the White
House and explained my instructions to the
President. With evident reluctance the President
accepted my escort, and the trip to the
country was made. Prom that time to within
two weeks of his assassination the Light
Ciuard continued as the Presidents bodyguard

About two weeks prior to his assassination
the Light Guard, at the urgent request
of Presldeut Lincoln, was relieved from escort
duty and used as mounted orderlies. On
the night of Lincolns assassination, with ten
of my men, I was stationed but a lew blocks
away when the rumor came up the street that
Seward had been assassinated.

I hurried my command to Fords Theater.
Just as l reached there the President was car-
ried across the street. The men who carried
him first started to take him into a saloon,
but were stopped by the proprietor of the
place, who said:
Dont bring him in here. Take him up
stairs. It shouldnt be said that the President
of the United States died in a saloon.
The building was a two-story brick one,
just across the street from the theater, and
the President was carried to the second story.
I formed my little body of men at the doorway
to keep out all intruders and sent for re-
enforcements. That night I turned back Congressmen,
Senators and Generals. At about
2 oclock Gen. Meigs, Chief quartermaster
General, came to the door and asked me if I
would like to see the President before he
breathed his last. I answered that as I had
been close to his side, and his protector for
nearly two years and was greatly attached to
him, I certainly should. When I entered the
room Surgeon General Rarnes was standing
at his bedside, and a moment later he called
Mrs. Lincoln, and, as we stood there, the
President died.

I have seen in print many stories of the
plot against Lincoln's life, many of them
blaming the South, but never the true one.
The facts are that Booth had a very dear
actor friend named Anderson, who was condemned
to be shot as a spy. Prior to that
time Booth and Lincoln had been friends. A
strong efiort was made In Andersons behalf,
so strong that a Cabinet meeting was held,
and in some way Booth managed to appear at
the meeting and plead with tears in his eyes
for his friend's life.

He left the meeting with the understanding
that the sentence would be commuted to
Imprisonment. Anderson was shot the following
morning at sunrise. Booth was
frenzied with rage, and it was as a result of
this that the plot to kill not only Lincoln but
the entire Cabinet was formed. There was
more than the one man prepared to shoot
that night, and if the courage of the man to
whom was intrusted the duty of turning out
the theater lights had not failed him there
would have been a general slaughter.
The South had nothing to do with President
Lincolns assassination, and, moreover,
Mrs. Surratt, who was hanged for complicity
in the crime, was an innocent woman. I
know it to be a fact that Chief of Secret Service
Baker on his deathbed confessed to Secretary
Stanton that Mrs. Surratt was hanged
on perjured evidence.

While acting as the Presidents bodyguard
I was instrumental In saving the lives
of three men who were to be shot as spies. I
had orders from the Secretary of War never
to permit any one to see President Lincoln
after nightfall without an order from the Secretary
of War, and not to permit any letter
to go to the President until it had passed
through Secretary Stantons hands. Three
men- two brothers named Lampertlne and
a man named Ross- had been ordered shot by
Gen. Lew Wallace at Baltimore. A brothei
of the Lampertines, Attorney General Quinn.
John W. Forney and Dr. Du Hammel. on the
night before the execution was to take place,
drove over to Washington to plead with President
Lincoln. The three men were,to be shot
at sunrise.

The intercessors arrived at 2 oclock in
the morning, and with tears in their eyes
begged me to violate orders and let them
see the President. I finally consented, and
Informed the President of their request. He
came from his bed room in his night shirt
and after searching the men for weapons I
admitted them. They were successful in
their mission, and the sentence was sus-
pended until further notice. Had It not been,
for this one evasion of orders on my part
three men whom I believe are still alive
would have been dead that morning.

Lieut. Jamison related many other interesting
Incidents of his war career. He has
many valuable relics of the Lincoln family,
and on his present trip has with him the
dress coat worn by Lincoln at his first Inauguration.
It was purchased at Chicago for
him by Illinois friends. Mr. Jamison was
offered $1500 for the coat by the Llbby Prison
Museum at Chicago. He also has autographed
letters addressed to himself from the martyr
President, Mrs. Lincoln and Robert T. Lincoln;
also a carved cane symbolizing the
proclamation of emancipation, bearing this
Presented by Mrs. Lincoln to J. B. Jamison,
commanding Presidents escort, April
25, 1865.
Mr. Jamison now owns a large orange farm
In Florida. After a few days stay here ha
wjll visit friends in York, Adams and Northampton
Counties. He says that he is an out-
and-out Democrat, and has a Greeley hat
which he has worn to every election for years

The Globe-Democrat of August 31. containing
John Shermans great speech on the
silver question. In full, can be purchased at
the counting room of this paper, wrapped and
ready for mailing, at 6c per copy*.


Comment in blog:

1/ Philadelphia Times of 29 August 1893 pg 4 cols. 4 & 5

RE: Lincoln's non pardon
How would a strong Union man from Ohio rendering this story play into the interpretation of Booth's motive?

How would it be if that person was a member of the Union Light Guard?

How about if he was the de facto commander of the Union Light Guard?

Well, his name is James Jamison. In an article written about a trip he made up to Pennsylvania to see Philadelphia City Treasurer George D. McCreary, he related tales of his Lincoln days and the assassination which are reported in the Philadelphia Times of 29 August 1893 pg 4 cols. 4 & 5.

Some things of note regarding what he said:

Jamison was assigned to Ohio governor, David Todd, prior to being assigned by him to the unit which became the Union Light Guard. The captain and 1st lieutenant of the Union Light Guard were court-martialed and dismissed from service shortly after arriving in Washington. Jamison succeeded to command of the unit and maintained such without promotion until unit was disbanded.

He was ordered by Stanton to have the unit act as bodyguard to Lincoln. After back and forths between Stanton and Lincoln, Lincoln eventually excepted the unit as bodyguards.

He also discusses the night of the assassination, guarding the door of Petersen House and escorting the body back to the White House.

Then he tells an interesting tale about Booth and his reason for killing Lincoln:

"I have seen in print many stories of the plot against Lincoln's life, many of them blaming the South, but never the true one. The facts are that Booth had a very dear actor friend named Anderson, who wa condemned to be shot as a spy. Prior to that time Booth and Lincoln had been friends. A strong effort was made in Anderson's behalf, so strong that a Cabinet meeting was held, and in some way Booth managed to appear at the meeting and plead with tears in his eye for his friend's life.

"He left the meeting with the understanding that the sentence would be commuted to imprisonment. Anderson was shot the following morning at sunrise. Booth was frenzied with rage and it was as a result of this that the plot to kill not only Lincoln but the entire Cabinet was formed. There was more than one man prepared to shoot that night, and if the courage of the man to whom was intrusted the duty of turning out the theatre lights had not failed him there would have been a general slaughter.

"The South had nothing to do with President Lincoln's assassination, and, moreover, Mrs. Surratt, who was hanged for complicity in the crime, was an innocent woman. I know it to be a fact that Chief of Secret Service Baker on his deathbed confessed to Secretary Stanton that Mrs. Surratt was hanged on perjured evidence."

He goes on to discuss another occasion dealing with spies who were to be shot where he ignored standing orders. The standing orders were to "never permit anyone to see President Lincoln after nightfall without an order from the Secretary of War, and not to permit any letter to go to the President until it had passed through Secretary Stanton's hands." On this occasion regarding two brothers named Lampertines and a man named Ross, he let them see the President. As far as Jamison knew, they were successful and the sentences were "suspended until further notice."

It is to be noted that he says the issue was with Anderson and not John Yates Beall. Personally, I think he was mistaken. Beall was caught with a fellow rebel by the name of George Smith Anderson who turned evidence against Beall. Is it that perhaps he overheard some of the conversation that took place between Booth and Lincoln and heard the reference to Anderson and mistook him as the spy being talked about? Although, he does say that Anderson was an actor friend of Booth which John Yates Beall does not appear to be.

Of further notes, the article goes on to indicate that he collected Lincoln memorabilia including the following:

- dress coat worn by Lincoln at his first inauguration
- autographic letters addressed to himself from the Lincoln, Mrs. Lincoln, and Robert T. Lincoln
- a carved cane symbolizing the proclamation of emancipation, bearing the inscription: "Presented by Mrs. Lincoln to J. B. Jamison, commanding President's escort, April 25, 1865."

Unfortunately for Jamison, his life would take a turn for the worse a couple weeks after the publishing of this article. While still in Pennsylvania, his Florida house was robbed, his wife murdered, and the house burned down to cover the crime. The individual that did this was a neighbor who was originally from Kentucky. This is discussed in another article in the Philadelphia Times of 13 December 1893 pg. 3, cols. 1 & 2.

Looking at a site that traced the Jamison genealogy, a relative (perhaps an uncle or granduncle - the site is confusing) Horatio Gates Jameson Jr., was married to Sarah McCulloh Porter, a cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln. Jamesonfamily.org

So, what are your thoughts on James Buchanan Jamison's stories? Furthermore, are the artifacts that he talks about accounted for?

Horatio G., Jr. (son of Horatio Gates Jameson), was born in 1815, and
in 1836 graduated at the Ohio Medical College. In 1841 he married Sarah
McCulloch, daughter of Mary (Pannell) and William Porter of Baltimore, Md.,
whose brothers, David R. and George B. Porter, were governors of Pennsylvania
and Michigan, respectively, and James M. was secretary of war under President
Tyler. The Doctor and wife left no heirs, and died, within a few weeks of each
other, at their home at Mount Washington.
Sarah Mcculloch Porter was first cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln.


3/ https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org/cgi-bin/colorado?a=d&d=THD19020907-01.2.155#
Herald Democrat, September 7, 1902

VALUABLE RELIC OWNED BY PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY. Was Presented to the Great President by Grateful Friends of Boy He Had Saved From Military Execution—Of Curious Make.. The* Historical Society at York, Pa., has Just received an interesting addition to its museum. It is a cane presented to President Lincoln during the civil war. In the early days nf August. 1861, soon after the first battle of Bull Hun. a Vermont regiment was lying in camp with other troops on the Virginia side of the Potomac, near Washington. Benjamin Allen, a boy of 17. and a private in this regiment, fell asleep while on duty as a sentinel at a lime when the camp was In danger of an attack from the enemy. He was placed under arrest, tried and sentenced to be shot. Allen s case was brought to the attention of President Lincoln, who pardoned him and restored him to the ranks. He was welcomed back to the regiment by bis comrades, with whom he was popular, and the tiding., •ent to his parents. This incident was the subject of a pathetic story, widely published during the war. It represented the little sister of Private Allen going to Washington alone and pleading with tho great President to save the life of her brother. Lincoln's heart was touched and the boy was pardoned, and afterward became a brave soldier. Tho story appeared in muro than a dozen “school readers." Soon after the news of tho soldier’s reprieve reached Vermont a number of his friends procured thirty-one pieces of wood and made them Into a cane. Each piece of wood was to I represent a state, as there were hut thirty-one stcd.es then la the Union, including those which had seceded. . The cano wus then taken to Washing- ? ton by a relative of the soldier and | presented to President Lincoln at tho While House. During 1864 and 1865 tho secretary of war ordered a troop of cavalry to report at tho White House as a body guard to the President. This company were in camp for several months on tho lawn to the south of the execui live mansion. The President at first was unwilling to have a squad of these troopers accompany him when he rodo or drove out for recreation or on any occasion. He finally acceded to the wishes of his friends and often had some of them with him as a body guard. The cavalry company was In command of Capt. Jameson, who became well acquainted with the President and Mrs. Lincoln. Soon after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln Capt. Jameson, for kindness shown Mrs. Lincoln, was presented by her with two canes. Tho one now In possession of the York County society was given by Capt. Jameson shortly before his death to his old friend and comrade. Davis Garber of Hanover, Pa. Mr. Garber gave it to the York County Historical society.


Publication: Harrisburg Daily Independent iLocation: Harrisburg, PennsylvaniaIssue Date: Wednesday, December 30, 1908, Page: Page 1

Harrisburg Daily Independent from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania · Page 1
T TELLS TREASURES RARE LINCOLN RELICS Mrs. Jamison Owns Coat and Cane of Martyred President HE GIVES TWICE 10 GIVES QUICKLY That Is the ...

Harrisburg Daily Independent from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania · Page 17
Chairman of the General Lincoln Day Committee. , SAMUEL J. M. McOARltELL. .... A third relic of Lincoln possessed by Mrs. Jamison is a cane presented to …


Reading Eagle news article - Lincoln pardons and cane